||William Harvey, an English Physician, first describes blood circulation.
||Raymond de Vieussens, a French anatomy professor, first describes the structure
of the heart's chambers and vessels.
||Stephen Hales, an English clergyman and scientist, first measures blood pressure.
||Rene T. H. Laennec, a French physician, invents the stethoscope.
||Willem Einthoven, a Dutch physiologist, develops the electrocardiograph.
||James B. Herrick, an American physician, first describes heart disease
resulting from hardening of the arteries.
||Robert E. Gross, an American surgeon, performs first heart surgery.
||Charles Hufnagel, an American surgeon, develops a plastic valve to repair an
||F. John Lewis, an American surgeon, performs first successful open heart surgery.
||John H. Gibbon, an American surgeon, first uses a mechanical heart and blood
||J. R. Jude, an American cardiologist, leads a team performing the first external
cardiac massage to restart a heart.
||Michael DeBakey and Adrian Kantrowitz, American surgeons, implant mechanical
devices to help a diseased heart.
||Christiaan Barnard, a South African surgeon, performs the first whole heart
transplant from one person to another.
||Willem DeVries, an American surgeon, implants a permanent artificial heart,
designed by Robert Jarvik, an American physician, into a patient.